تحريف الإنجيل 04 : إعتراف القديس أوريجانوس بتحريف الإنجيل

تحريف الإنجيل : إعتراف القديس أوريجانوس بتحريف الإنجيل

الخلاصة:

أوريجانوس origen قديس مسيحي موثوق، له باع في علم اللاهوت، إعترف بإختلافات في الإنجيل، في رسالة كتببها لأفريكانوس. بين فيها التحريفات.

 

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التفاصيل : 

سيرة أوريجانوس :

أوريجانوس قديس مسيحي مؤمن، ولد في 185 ميلادية في الإسكندرية، تم تعيينه في سن 18 مديرا لمردسة الإسكندرية اللاهوتية من طرف البابا ديميتريوس الأول خلفا لأكليمنضس. وبعدها حصلت له متناعب جمة، حيث إنتقل إلى الأأرض المقدسة و درس فيها لسنوات، وتعرض للجن و التعذيب من أعداء المسيحية .

كتب عدة كتب موسوعية في المسيحية.

كتب رسالة لصديقه يوليوس الأفريقي يبين فيها تحريف الإنجيل !

A Letter from Origen to Africanus

مضمون الرسالة مترجمة باللغة العربية الفصحى :

سلام من أوريجانوس إلي أفريكانوس ( يوليوس الأفريقي ) الحبيب في الله الآب, خلال ابنه القدوس يسوع المسيح.

عرفت من خلال رسالتك, رأيك في قصة سوسنه المذكورة في سفر دانيال, ذاك السفر الذي يقرأ في الكنائس, رغم أنه واضح وجود نقص في القصة نوعا ما, ومع وجود معضلات كثيرة في كلماتها القليلة إلا إنه لا معضلة من المعضلات تستلزم بحثا كاملا, ويكفينا رسالة مطولة

وإذا أمعنت النظر في مقدرتي العلمية حسب معرفتي, أري إني غير مؤهل لأن أرد عليك بالدقة المطلوبة في هذا الموضوع , بالإضافة إلي ذلك, فإن الأيام القليلة التي قضيتها في نيكوميديا لم تكن كافية لكتابة رد يستوفي استفساراتك وطلباتك ولا حتى علي هيئة هذه الرسالة, فلتعذرني في تقصيري وضيق وقتي ولتقرأ هذه الرسالة بتمعن وسوف أمدك إن كان هناك ما لم أذكره

2 لقد بدأت رسالتك بقولك أني في نقاشي مع صديقنا بسوس ذكرت قصة سوسنة من نبوة دانيال, وقلت أني ذكرت القصة وكأني لم أنتبه إن هذا الجزء من نبوة دانيال زائفة, وقلت أيضا أنك تمدح في فقرات قصة سوسنة، وتري عباراتها رشيقة، غير انك تجد فيها أخطاء وأنها قد كتبت حديثا لذلك فهي فقرة مزورة, وأضفت أن الشخص المزور لها لجأ إلي ما لم يلجأ إليه حتى الكاتب المسرحي فلستون في تلاعبه بالألفاظ بين كلمة برينوس ( prinos ( وبريسن ( ( preisen

و سيشيس سيشينوس, تلك الكلمات في نطقهم في اليونانية يمكن إستخدامها بهذه الطريقة ولا يمكن ذالك بالعبرية

في الرد علي ذلك أقول لك ما ينبغي أن نفعله في مثل كل هذه الحالات وليس فقط في حالة قصة سوسنة, تلك القصة التي نجدها في كل كنائس المسيح في النسخة اليونانية التي يستخدمها اليونانيون, ولكن لا توجد في النسخة العبرية, النسخة العبرية أيضا لا تحتو علي الفقرات التي قلت أنها في آخر الكتاب, تلك التي تتحدث عن الصنم بال و التنين’ ليست فقط تلك الفقرات بل آلاف الفقرات, ولقد أدركت ذلك عندما كنت بإمكانياتي الصغيرة أجمع النسخة العبرية مع نسختنا.

وفي سفر دانيال نفسه وجدت كلمة ( أوثق ) تلتها نصوص كثيرة في نسختنا ولا توجد في النسخة العبرية نهائيا, .بدأ من ( حسب بعض النسخ المتداولة في الكنيسة ) ” وصلي حننيا و عزريا و ميشائيلو ورنموا للرب ” إلي ” باركوا يا جميع القانتين الرب اله الآلهة سبحوا و اعترفوا لان الى الأبد رحمته، وحينئذ سمعهم الملك وهم يرنمون ” [1] أو كما في نسخة أخري ” ومشوا في وسط النار يسبحون الله ويمجدون الرب ” إلي ” باركوا يا جميع القانتين الرب اله الآلهة سبحوا و اعترفوا لان الى الابد رحمته

أما في النسخة العبرية فعبارة ” و هؤلاء الثلاثة الرجال شدرخ و ميشخ و عبد نغو سقطوا موثقين في وسط أتون النار المتقدة.” تليها مباشرة “: حينئذ تحيّر نبوخذناصّر الملك وقام مسرعا فأجاب وقال لمشيريه ألم نلقي ثلاثة رجال موثقين في وسط النار.فأجابوا وقالوا للملك صحيح أيها الملك. أجاب وقال ها انا ناظر أربعة رجال محلولين يتمشون في وسط النار وما بهم ضرر ومنظر الرابع شبيه بابن الآلهة “

أكيلا وهو يتبع القراءة العبرية قد ذكرها وهو ممن يشهد له اليهود أنه ترجم الكتاب المقدس بعناية غير عادية, وتعتبر ترجمته من أفضل الترجمات لتي يستخدمها من لا يجيد العبرية.

من ضمن النسخ التي ذكرتها, نسختين تحت حوزتي إحداهما تتبع النهج السبعيني والأخري نهج ثيودوشن , والنسختان تذكران قصة سوسنة التي وصفتها بأنها قصة مفبركة, وكذلك النصوص التي جاءت في آخر دانيال مذكورة, ومجموعها حسب تقديري أكثر من مائتين آية

3 وفي أماكن أخري كثيرة في الكتاب المقدس وحدت إضافات توجد في نسختنا ولا توجد في النسخة العبرية , وأحينا وجدت نسختنا تنقصها نصوصا نجدها في العبرية, وسوف أقدم عدة أمثلة حيث يصعب أن أذكر كل النصوص

أدعية أستير ومردخاي في سفر أستير التي من شأنها أن تهذب القاري لم تذكر في النسخة العبرية, وكذلك النصوص التي تتحدث عن رسائل أستير إلي مردخاي ولا تلك الموجهة لهامان عن إبادة اليهود ولا عن رسالة مردوخ باسم أحشوبيرش لإنقاذ الشعب اليهودي

و في سفر أيوب, العبارات ” مكتوب انه سوف يقوم مرة أخري مع الذين يقيمهم الرب ” إلي النهاية, هذه العبارات ليست في النسخة العبرية ولا في ترجمة أكيله اليونانية بينما توجد في (الترجمة ) السبعينية ونسخة ثيودستن, ويتوافقان معا علي الأقل في المعني

وقد وجدت في أماكن كثيرة في سفر أيوب نصوصا إضافية في نسختنا, هذه الإضافات أحيانا صغيرة وأحيانا كثيرة كثرة هائلة , فمن الإضافات الطفيفة علي سبيل المثال, نجدها بعد عبارة ” وبكّر في الغد واصعد محرقات على عددهم ” [2] يضاف بعدها ” عجل صغير لخطايا أرواحهم ” إلي :” جاء ملائكة الله ليمثلوا أمام الرب وجاء الشيطان أيضا في وسطهم [3]

” من الجولان في الأرض ومن التمشي فيها ” ثم بعد عبارة ” الرب أعطي لرب أخذ ” النسخة العبرية ليس فيها ” وكان كذلك إذ قد بدا جيدا للرب ” كما أن محتويات نسختنا أكثر بكثير من النسخة العبرية عند حديث زوجة أيوب له, بدأ من قول ” إلي متى تصبر فقال لها أنتظر قليلا, انتظر أمل خلاصي” إلي ” حتى تنتهي آلامي وأحزاني التي تتوقني” أنا النسخة العبرية فلا تحتوي سوي عبارة ” ألعن الرب ومت ” [4]

 

ومن الناحية الأخري, نجد نصوص كثيرة خلال سفر أيوب تفتقدها نسختنا, عامة أربع أو خمس آيات ( أعداد ) ولكن أحيانا النقص يتراوح ما بين أربعة عشر إلي تسعة عشر آية في (مختلف نسخنا) ولكن لماذا أسرد كل الأمثلة التي جمعتها بمشقة, كي أثبت لك أن الفوارق بين النسخ العبرية ونسخنا لم أغفل عنه؟ في ارميا لاحظت أمثلة عديدة, بل أني وجدت في ارميا تغيرات كثيرة في مواقع النصوص واختلافات في قرأه كثير من النبوات, وفي سفر التكوين في نص خلق السماء, عبارة ” ورأي الله أن ذلك حسن ” ولا يوجد جدال صغير بينهم في ذلك. وفي ومثال آخر نجده في سفر التكوين, وقد علمت عليها لأجل التمييز بالعلامة التي يسميها اليونانيون المسلة

كما أـني أشرت بعلامة نجمية علي النصوص التي تحتويها نسخنا ولا تحتويها النسخة العبرية. وماذا أقول عن سفر الخروج حيث تجد التضارب في النصوص التي تتحدث عن خيمة الاجتماع ومحكمتها وكذلك ملابس الكهنة ورئيس الكهنة, هذه النصوص أحيانا لا يوجد تشابه بينهما حتى في مضمون معانيها, وعندما نلاحظ مثل هذه الأشياء علينا أن نرفض فورا النسخ المستخدمة في كنائسنا باعتبارها محرفة ونفرض علي الإخوة أن يتركوا تلك النسخ ويتلطفوا إلي اليهود كي يعطونا نسخ لم يتلاعب بها وليس فيها تزوير!, أم نحسب أن العناية الإلهية في الكتاب المقدس وخدمتها في توعية الكنيسة لم تفكر في هؤلاء الذين دفع لهم الثمن ومات المسيح من أجلهم إذ لم يستثني الله شيئا في حبه حتى أبنه تخلي عنه وبذله من أجلنا, وبه يعطينا كل شيء

لا تنقل التخم القديم الذي وضعه آباؤك “

5 في كل هذه الحالات تمعن ما إن كان ليس حسنا أن يذكر قول ” لا تنقل التخوم القديمة التي وضعها آباؤك ” ولا أقول ذلك لأتجنب التحقيق في كتاب اليهود ومقارنتها بنسخنا وملاحظة الفوارق, فقد فعلت ذلك إلي حد بعبد قدر إمكاني , ولا تعتبر قولي نوعا من الغطرسة, فقد بذلت جهدا كبيرا للوصول إلي معاني كل الطبعات وكذلك القراءات المختلفة وقد ركزت في عملي علي النسخة السبعينية خشية أن يقال أني أنسب التزوير إلي كل الكنائس, وبذلك أمنح فرصة لمن يبحثون عن أي نقطة ينطلقوا منها للافتراء علي الإخوة, ولدي هؤلاء رغبة عارمة في توجيه الاتهامات إلي النخبة من جماعتنا, وأنا أسعي إلي معرفة الفوارق بين النسخ وعدم الجهل بها كي أتمكن في جدالي مع اليهود أن أستحضر الشواهد من النصوص الغير مذكورة في نسخهم, وأيضا كي أستشهد بالنصوص التي في نسخهم حتى وإن كانت ليست في نسخنا, فإننا إن تهيأنا لهم في نقاشنا معهم لن يستطيعوا أن يسخروا منا نحن الأميين, فمن أخلاقهم السيئة أن يحتقروننا قائلين إن الأمميين ليس لديهم النسخة الصحيحة التي في حوزتهم, أما عن عدم ذكر النسخة العبرية لقصة سوسنة

6 دعنا الآن ننظر إلي الأشياء التي تجد فيها أخطاء في قصة سوسنة, ولنبدأ بما هو محتمل إن يسبب عدم تقبل قصة سوسنة, أقصد التلاعب بين كلمتي برينوس وبريسي وكذلك شينوس وشيسيس, تقول أن هذا ممكن في اليونانية ولكن لا يمكن في اللغة العبرية لأنه لا يوجد تقارب في الكلمتين في العبرية. ولكني أشك في صحة قولك, لأني عندما بحثت في هذه النقطة ( فقد كنت أري نفس المشكلة من قبل ) لقد استشرت عدد من اليهود عن الموضوع, سألتهم عن المرادف العبري لكلمتي برينوس وبرئسين وماذا يسمون شجرة سشينوس زسيشيس, ولم يعرفوا كلمتي برينوس وسشينوس اليونانيتين وطلبوا مني أن أريهم الأشجار كي يخبروني ماذا يسمونها بالعبرية, وللتو فعلت ذلك ( من أجل الحقيقة أيها العزيز ) ووضعت أمامهم الأشجار, فقال أحدهم أنه لا يستطيع أن يسمي أي شيء بثقة ما لم يذكر في التوراة,’ وإن تعذر الحصول علي مرادف الكلمة يمكن للواحد أن يستخدم مرادفها السرياني, وأضاف قائلا, أن بعض الكلمات لا يستطيع أحد ترجمتها حتى, ثم قال أنه من المكن للواحد أن يعرف معني تلك الكلمات إذا عرفت أين وردت في الكتاب ولكن إن لم تذكر نهائيا فلا سبيل إلي معرفتها

هذا هو ما أخبرني اليهودي الذي ناقشته, وهو شخص علي دراية بالتاريخ, ولذلك لا أستطيع أن أتسرع في تأكيد وجود ما يماثل تلك الكلمات في العبرية, أما تأكيدك في عدم وجودها فأنت تعلم ما بنيت عليه نظرتك

7 علاوة علي ذلك, أذكر أني سمعت من يهودي دارس وهو ابن لحكيم يهودي’ يقال إن والده مرنه وأعده ليخلفه من بعده , لقد حاورته في أمور عدة ولم يرفض قصة سوسنة وأسماء الشيخان كما وردت في ارميا ” يجعلك الرب مثل صدقيا ومثل اخآب اللذين شواهما ملك بابل بالنار من أجل إثمهما في إسرائيل ” [5] كيف إذن يقطع أحدهما بالمشار من قبل الملائكة ويمزق الآخر إربا إربا , والإجابة علي ذلك هي أن هذه نبوات تخص يوم الدينونة بعد الرحيل من هذا العالم, مثل ( نبوة ) ذاك العبد الآثم وسيده وقول العبد ” سيدي يبطئ قدومه ” ثم يستسلم للشرب والأكل مع السكارى ويضرب رفاقه العبيد, وعند مجيء سيده ” يقطعه إربا ويجعل نصيبه مع غير المؤمنين “

كذلك الملاك الموكل بالعذاب سوف يتمم هذه الأمور علي الرجلين الذين جعلا شيخين ولكنهما استغلا مناصبهما في أعمال شريرة, أحدهما سوف يقطع بالمنشار لظلمه في القضاء بإدانة البريء وتبرئة الجاني والآخر سوف يمزق إربا وهو ليس من نسل يهوذا بل من نسل كنعان وقد فتنه الجمال و أضلت الشهوة قلبه

وأعرف يهوديا آخر ذكر الشيخين وقال اتهما تظاهرا ليهود المنفي الآملين بمجي المسيح ليحررهم من العبودية .. تظاهر الشيخان بمعرفة كل ما يتعلق بالمسيح وأنهما بذلك خدعا زوجات مواطنيهما من أجل ذلك يقول دانيال لأحدهما ” أيها المتعتق الأيام الشريرة ” وقال للآخر ” هكذا كنتما تصنعان مع بنات إسرائيل لكن بنات يهوذا لم تحتمل فجوركما “

غير انك سوف تقول : إذا كان اليهود تناقلوا هذه القصة فلماذا إذن ليست مذكورة في النسخة العبرية لدانيال ” والإجابة هي أن اليهود يخفون عن الناس قدر الإمكان النصوص الني تحتوي علي فضائح الشيوخ الحكام والقضاء .. بعض هذه القصص وردت في الأسفار الأبوكريفا كقصة عيسو التي شهد لها رسالة العبرانيين غير اننا لا نجدها في أي من أسفار اليهود .. لقد قال كاتب رسالة العبرانيين وهو يتحدث عن الأنبياء وما عانوه, يقول ” رجموا نشروا جربوا ماتوا قتلا بالسيف ” 11/37

وأنا أسأل, إلي من تشير كلمة ” نشروا ” ( قطعوا بالمنشار )

نحن نعلم جيدا أن التقليد يخبرنا إن عيسو النبي قطع بالمنشار وهذا مذكور أيضا في بعض كتب الأبوكريفا التي من المحتمل أن اليهود حرفوها بإضافة نصوص واضحة في كونها غير صحيحة وذلك كي تثار الشكوك حول مصداقية السفر كليا

ولكن ربما أحد ما أمام هذه الحجة القوية يستعين بالرأي القائل ان رسالة العبرانيين لم يكتبها بولس وهذا الرأي سوف أفنده في وقت أحر وأثبت ان بولس هو كاتبها.. أما الآن فسوف أقدم من الإنجيل شهادة يسوع المسيح عن الأنبياء مع قصة أشار إليها لكنها لم تذكر في العهد القديم لأنها أيضا تخص فضائح القضاء الظلمة في إسرائيل

كلمات مخلصنا هي

ويل لكم ايها الكتبة والفريسيون المراؤون لانكم تبنون قبور الانبياء وتزيّنون مدافن الصديقين , وتقولون لو كنا في ايام آبائنا لما شاركناهم في دم الأنبياء , فانتم تشهدون على أنفسكم إنكم أبناء قتلة الأنبياء فاملأوا انتم مكيال آبائكم. أيها الحيّات أولاد الأفاعي كيف تهربون من دينونة جهنم. لذلك ها إنا أرسل إليكم أنبياء وحكماء وكتبة فمنهم تقتلون وتصلبون ومنهم تجلدون في مجامعكم وتطردون من مدينة إلى مدينة. لكي يأتي عليكم كل دم زكي سفك على الأرض من دم هابيل الصدّيق إلى دم زكريا بن برخيا الذي قتلتموه بين الهيكل والمذبح: الحق أقول لكم إن هذا كله يأتي على هذا الجيل يا أورشليم يا أورشليم يا قاتلة الأنبياء وراجمة المرسلين إليها كم مرة أردت أن اجمع أولادك كما تجمع الدجاجة أفراخها تحت جناحيها ولم تريدوا. هوذا بيتكم يترك لكم خرابا

فلننظر الآن, ألسنا في هذا الحالة ملزمين أن نصل إلي استنتاج وهو إن المخلص يعطينا قصة حقيقية عن اليهود بينما لا نجد أي نص من الكتاب المقدس يؤكد قول يسوع , فإن الذين يبنون قبور الأنبياء ويزينون مدافن الصديقين ويدينون جرائم آبائهم يقولون لو كنا في أيام آبائنا لما شاركناهم في دم الأنبياء [6]

فهل من أحد يخبرني, دم أي نبي من الأنبياء وأين ذكر هذا عن عيسو أو ارميا أو أي من الأنبياء الإثني عشر أو دانيال, وحتى زكريا بن برخيا الذي قتل بين الهيكل والمذبح لم نعرف عنه إلا من يسوع ولولا يسوع لما عرفنا القصة فالكتاب المقدس لم تذكر القصة أبدا

من أجل ذلك, أعتقد أنه لا يوجد افتراض آخر سوي أن الحكماء والقضاة وأيضا الشيوخ أخفوا عن الناس النصوص الني تسيء إليهم .. لذلك يجب أن لا نري غرابة في كون قصة الشيخان الفاجران وشرهما ضد سوسنة قصة حقيقية لكنها أخفيت ومسحت من الكتاب المقدس علي يد شيوخ اليهود

وفي أعمال الرسل يقول استفانوس ” اي الأنبياء لم يضطهده آباؤكم وقد قتلوا الذين ظهروا قبل مجي صاحب العدل الذي غدرتم به وقتلتموه ” [7]

ان كل من يؤمن بقانونية سفر أعمال الرسل يقر بصدق كلام استفانوس ولكن من المستحيل أن نثبت تهم اضطهاد وقتل الأنبياء من العهد القديم لمن لا يؤمن بيسوع

ويقول بولس في رسالته الأولي إلي تسالونكي ” فانكم أيها الإخوة صرتم متمثلين بكنائس الله التي هي في اليهودية في المسيح يسوع لأنكم تألمتم انتم أيضا من أهل عشيرتكم تلك الآلام عينها كما هم أيضا من اليهود الذين قتلوا الرب يسوع وأنبياءهم واضطهدونا نحن وهم غير مرضين للّه وأضداد لجميع الناس ” [8]

أعتقد ان ما قلته كافي لأن يبرهن علي صحة قصة سوسنة وأن الهجوم القاسي علي سوسنة من قبل الشيخان حقيقة قد كتبت بواسطة روح الحكمة ولكن أزالها قضاة سدوم[9] كما يسميهم الروح

ترجمة محمود أباشيخ من موقع إبن مريم

[1] من 3/25– 3/90 حسب النسخة الكاثوليكية الحالية – المترجم

[2] أبوب 5/1

[3] أيوب 1/6

[4] أيوب 2/9

[5] ارميا 29/22-23

[6] متي 23/29-39

[7] أعمال الرسل 7/52

[8] تسالونكي 2/14-15

[9] عبارة تشبيهية قصد بها كهنة اليهود وحكامها

الرسالة بالإنجليزية

A Letter from Origen to Africanus

Origen to Africanus, a beloved brother in God the Father, through Jesus Christ, His holy Child, greeting. Your letter, from which I learn what you think of the Susanna in the Book of Daniel, which is used in the Churches, although apparently somewhat short, presents in its few words many problems, each of which demands no common treatment, but such as oversteps the character of a letter, and reaches the limits of a discourse. And I, when I consider, as best I can, the measure of my intellect, that I may know myself, am aware that I am wanting in the accuracy necessary to reply to your letter; and that the more, that the few days I have spent in Nicomedia have been far from sufficient to send you an answer to all your demands and queries even after the fashion of the present epistle. Wherefore pardon my little ability, and the little time I had, and read this letter with all indulgence, supplying anything I may omit.

  1. 2. You begin by saying, that when, in my discussion with our friend Bassus, I used the Scripture which contains the prophecy of Daniel when yet a young man in the affair of Susanna, I did this as if it had escaped me that this part of the book was spurious. You say that you praise this passage as elegantly written, but find fault with it as a more modern composition, and a forgery; and you add that the forger has had recourse to something which not even Philistion the play-writer would have used in his puns between prinos and prisein, schinos and schisis, which words as they sound in Greek can be used in this way, but not in Hebrew. In answer to this, I have to tell you what it behooves us to do in the cases not only of the History of Susanna, which is found in every Church of Christ in that Greek copy which the Greeks use, but is not in the Hebrew, or of the two other passages you mention at the end of the book containing the history of Bel and the Dragon, which likewise are not in the Hebrew copy of Daniel; but of thousands of other passages also which I found in many places when with my little strength I was collating the Hebrew copies with ours. For in Daniel itself I found the word bound followed in our versions by very many verses which are not in the Hebrew at all, beginning (according to one of the copies which circulate in the Churches) thus: Ananias, and Azarias, and Misael prayed and sang unto God, down to O, all you that worship the Lord, bless the God of gods. Praise Him, and say that His mercy endures for ever and ever. And it came to pass, when the king heard them singing, and saw them that they were alive. Or, as in another copy, from And they walked in the midst of the fire, praising God and blessing the Lord, down to O, all you that worship the Lord, bless the God of gods. Praise Him, and say that His mercy endures to all generations. But in the Hebrew copies the words, And these three men, Sedrach, Misach, and Abednego fell down bound into the midst of the fire, are immediately followed by the verse, Nabouchodonosor the king was astonished, and rose up in haste, and spoke, and said unto his counsellors. For so Aquila, following the Hebrew reading, gives it, who has obtained the credit among the Jews of having interpreted the Scriptures with no ordinary care, and whose version is most commonly used by those who do not know Hebrew, as the one which has been most successful. Of the copies in my possession whose readings I gave, one follows the Seventy, and the other Theodotion; and just as the History of Susanna which you call a forgery is found in both, together with the passages at the end of Daniel, so they give also these passages, amounting, to make a rough guess, to more than two hundred verses.

  2. 3. And in many other of the sacred books I found sometimes more in our copies than in the Hebrew, sometimes less. I shall adduce a few examples, since it is impossible to give them all. Of the Book of Esther neither the prayer of Mardochaios nor that of Esther, both fitted to edify the reader, is found in the Hebrew. Neither are the letters; nor the one written to Amman about the rooting up of the Jewish nation, nor that of Mardochaios in the name of Artaxerxes delivering the nation from death. Then in Job, the words from It is written, that he shall rise again with those whom the Lord raises, to the end, are not in the Hebrew, and so not in Aquila’s edition; while they are found in the Septuagint and in Theodotion’s version, agreeing with each other at least in sense. And many other places I found in Job where our copies have more than the Hebrew ones, sometimes a little more, and sometimes a great deal more: a little more, as when to the words, Rising up in the morning, he offered burnt-offerings for them according to their number, they add, one heifer for the sin of their soul; and to the words, The angels of God came to present themselves before God, and the devil came with them, from going to and fro in the earth, and from walking up and down in it. Again, after The Lord gave, the Lord has taken away, the Hebrew has not, It was so, as seemed good to the Lord. Then our copies are very much fuller than the Hebrew, when Job’s wife speaks to him, from How long will you hold out? And he said, Lo, I wait yet a little while, looking for the hope of my salvation, down to that I may cease from my troubles, and my sorrows which compass me. For they have only these words of the woman, But say a word against God, and die.

  3. 4. Again, through the whole of Job there are many passages in the Hebrew which are wanting in our copies, generally four or five verses, but sometimes, however, even fourteen, and nineteen, and sixteen. But why should I enumerate all the instances I collected with so much labour, to prove that the difference between our copies and those of the Jews did not escape me? In Jeremiah I noticed many instances, and indeed in that book I found much transposition and variation in the readings of the prophecies. Again, in Genesis, the words, God saw that it was good, when the firmament was made, are not found in the Hebrew, and there is no small dispute among them about this; and other instances are to be found in Genesis, which I marked, for the sake of distinction, with the sign the Greeks call an obelisk, as on the other hand I marked with an asterisk those passages in our copies which are not found in the Hebrew. What needs there to speak of Exodus, where there is such diversity in what is said about the tabernacle and its court, and the ark, and the garments of the high priest and the priests, that sometimes the meaning even does not seem to be akin? And, forsooth, when we notice such things, we are immediately to reject as spurious the copies in use in our Churches, and enjoin the brotherhood to put away the sacred books current among them, and to coax the Jews, and persuade them to give us copies which shall be untampered with, and free from forgery! Are we to suppose that that Providence which in the sacred Scriptures has ministered to the edification of all the Churches of Christ, had no thought for those bought with a price, for whom Christ died; whom, although His Son, God who is love spared not, but gave Him up for us all, that with Him He might freely give us all things?

  4. 5. In all these cases consider whether it would not be well to remember the words, You shall not remove the ancient landmarks which your fathers have set. Nor do I say this because I shun the labour of investigating the Jewish Scriptures, and comparing them with ours, and noticing their various readings. This, if it be not arrogant to say it, I have already to a great extent done to the best of my ability, labouring hard to get at the meaning in all the editions and various readings; while I paid particular attention to the interpretation of the Seventy, lest I might to be found to accredit any forgery to the Churches which are under heaven, and give an occasion to those who seek such a starting-point for gratifying their desire to slander the common brethren, and to bring some accusation against those who shine forth in our community. And I make it my endeavour not to be ignorant of their various readings, lest in my controversies with the Jews I should quote to them what is not found in their copies, and that I may make some use of what is found there, even although it should not be in our Scriptures. For if we are so prepared for them in our discussions, they will not, as is their manner, scornfully laugh at Gentile believers for their ignorance of the true reading as they have them. So far as to the History of Susanna not being found in the Hebrew.

  5. 6. Let us now look at the things you find fault with in the story itself. And here let us begin with what would probably make any one averse to receiving the history: I mean the play of words between prinos and prisis, schinos and schisis. You say that you can see how this can be in Greek, but that in Hebrew the words are altogether distinct. On this point, however, I am still in doubt; because, when I was considering this passage (for I myself saw this difficulty), I consulted not a few Jews about it, asking them the Hebrew words for prinos and prisein, and how they would translate schinos the tree, and how schisis. And they said that they did not know these Greek words prinos and schinos, and asked me to show them the trees, that they might see what they called them. And I at once (for the truth’s dear sake) put before them pieces of the different trees. One of them then said, that he could not with any certainty give the Hebrew name of anything not mentioned in Scripture, since, if one was at a loss, he was prone to use the Syriac word instead of the Hebrew one; and he went on to say, that some words the very wisest could not translate. If, then, said he, you can adduce a passage in any Scripture where the schinos is mentioned, or the prinos, you will find there the words you seek, together with the words which have the same sound; but if it is nowhere mentioned, we also do not know it. This, then, being what the Hebrews said to whom I had recourse, and who were acquainted with the history, I am cautious of affirming whether or not there is any correspondence to this play of words in the Hebrew. Your reason for affirming that there is not, you yourself probably know.

  6. 7. Moreover, I remember hearing from a learned Hebrew, said among themselves to be the son of a wise man, and to have been specially trained to succeed his father, with whom I had intercourse on many subjects, the names of these elders, just as if he did not reject the History of Susanna, as they occur in Jeremias as follows: The Lord make you like Zedekias and Achiab, whom the king of Babylon roasted in the fire, for the iniquity they did in Israel. How, then, could the one be sawn asunder by an angel, and the other rent in pieces? The answer is, that these things were prophesied not of this world, but of the judgment of God, after the departure from this world. For as the lord of that wicked servant who says, My lord delays his coming, and so gives himself up to drunkenness, eating and drinking with drunkards, and smiting his fellow-servants, shall at his coming cut him asunder, and appoint him his portion with the unbelievers, even so the angels appointed to punish will accomplish these things (just as they will cut asunder the wicked steward of that passage) on these men, who were called indeed elders, but who administered their stewardship wickedly. One will saw asunder him who was waxen old in wicked days, who had pronounced false judgment, condemning the innocent, and letting the guilty go free; and another will rend in pieces him of the seed of Chanaan, and not of Judah, whom beauty had deceived, and whose heart lust had perverted.

  7. 8. And I knew another Hebrew, who told about these elders such traditions as the following: that they pretended to the Jews in captivity, who were hoping by the coming of Christ to be freed from the yoke of their enemies, that they could explain clearly the things concerning Christ,…and that they so deceived the wives of their countrymen. Wherefore it is that the prophet Daniel calls the one waxen old in wicked days, and says to the other, Thus have you dealt with the children of Israel; but the daughters of Juda would not abide your wickedness.

  8. 9. But probably to this you will say, Why then is the History not in their Daniel, if, as you say, their wise men hand down by tradition such stories? The answer is, that they hid from the knowledge of the people as many of the passages which contained any scandal against the elders, rulers, and judges, as they could, some of which have been preserved in uncanonical writings (Apocrypha). As an example, take the story told about Esaias; and guaranteed by the Epistle to the Hebrews, which is found in none of their public books. For the author of the Epistle to the Hebrews, in speaking of the prophets, and what they suffered, says, They were stoned, they were sawn asunder, they were slain with the sword. To whom, I ask, does the sawn asunder refer (for by an old idiom, not peculiar to Hebrew, but found also in Greek, this is said in the plural, although it refers to but one person)? Now we know very well that tradition says that Esaias the prophet was sawn asunder; and this is found in some apocryphal work, which probably the Jews have purposely tampered with, introducing some phrases manifestly incorrect, that discredit might be thrown on the whole.

However, some one hard pressed by this argument may have recourse to the opinion of those who reject this Epistle as not being Paul’s; against whom I must at some other time use other arguments to prove that it is Paul’s. At present I shall adduce from the Gospel what Jesus Christ testifies concerning the prophets, together with a story which He refers to, but which is not found in the Old Testament, since in it also there is a scandal against unjust judges in Israel. The words of our Saviour run thus: Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites because you build the tombs of the prophets, and garnish the sepulchres of the righteous, and say, If we had been in the days of our fathers, we would not have been partaken with them in the blood of the prophets. Wherefore be witnesses unto yourselves, that you are the children of them which killed the prophets. Fill up then the measure of your fathers. You serpents, you generation of vipers, how can you escape the damnation of Gehenna? Wherefore, behold, I send unto you prophets, and wise men, and scribes; and some of them you shall kill and crucify; and some of them shall you scourge in your synagogues, and persecute them from city to city: that upon you may come all the righteous blood shed upon the earth, from the blood of righteous Abel unto the blood of Zacharias, son of Barachias, whom you slew between the temple and the altar. Verily I say unto you, All these things shall come upon this generation. And what follows is of the same tenor: O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, you that killest the prophets, and stone them which are sent unto you, how often would I have gathered your children together, even as a hen gathers her chickens under her wings, and you would not! Behold, your house is left unto you desolate.

Let us see now if in these cases we are not forced to the conclusion, that while the Saviour gives a true account of them, none of the Scriptures which could prove what He tells are to be found. For they who build the tombs of the prophets and garnish the sepulchres of the righteous, condemning the crimes their fathers committed against the righteous and the prophets, say, If we had been in the days of our fathers, we would not have been partakers with them in the blood of the prophets. In the blood of what prophets, can any one tell me? For where do we find anything like this written of Esaias, or Jeremias, or any of the twelve, or Daniel? Then about Zacharias the son of Barachias, who was slain between the temple and the altar, we learn from Jesus only, not knowing it otherwise from any Scripture. Wherefore I think no other supposition is possible, than that they who had the reputation of wisdom, and the rulers and elders, took away from the people every passage which might bring them into discredit among the people. We need not wonder, then, if this history of the evil device of the licentious elders against Susanna is true, but was concealed and removed from the Scriptures by men themselves not very far removed from the counsel of these elders.

In the Acts of the Apostles also, Stephen, in his other testimony, says, Which of the prophets have not your fathers persecuted? And they have slain them which showed before of the coming of the Just One; of whom you have been now the betrayers and murderers. That Stephen speaks the truth, every one will admit who receives the Acts of the Apostles; but it is impossible to show from the extant books of the Old Testament how with any justice he throws the blame of having persecuted and slain the prophets on the fathers of those who believed not in Christ. And Paul, in the first Epistle to the Thessalonians, testifies this concerning the Jews: For you, brethren, became followers of the Churches of God which in Judea are in Christ Jesus: for you also have suffered like things of your own countrymen, even as they have of the Jews; who both killed the Lord Jesus and their own prophets, and have persecuted us; and they please not God, and are contrary to all men. What I have said is, I think, sufficient to prove that it would be nothing wonderful if this history were true, and the licentious and cruel attack was actually made on Susanna by those who were at that time elders, and written down by the wisdom of the Spirit, but removed by these rulers of Sodom, as the Spirit would call them.

  1. 10. Your next objection is, that in this writing Daniel is said to have been seized by the Spirit, and to have cried out that the sentence was unjust; while in that writing of his which is universally received he is represented as prophesying in quite another manner, by visions and dreams, and an angel appearing to him, but never by prophetic inspiration. You seem to me to pay too little heed to the words, At sundry times, and in various manners, God spoke in time past unto the fathers by the prophets. This is true not only in the general, but also of individuals. For if you notice, you will find that the same saints have been favoured with divine dreams and angelic appearances and (direct) inspirations. For the present it will suffice to instance what is testified concerning Jacob. Of dreams from God he speaks thus: And it came to pass, at the time that the cattle conceived, that I saw them before my eyes in a dream, and, behold, the rams and he-goats which leaped upon the sheep and the goats, white-spotted, and speckled, and grisled. And the angel of God spoke unto me in a dream, saying, Jacob. And I said, What is it? And he said, Lift up your eyes and see, the goats and rams leaping on the goats and sheep, white-spotted, and speckled, and grisled: for I have seen all that Laban does unto you. I am God, who appeared unto you in the place of God, where you anointed to Me there a pillar, and vowed a vow there to Me: now arise, get out from this land, and return unto the land of your kindred.

And as to an appearance (which is better than a dream), he speaks as follows about himself: And Jacob was left alone; and there wrestled a man with him until the breaking of the day. And he saw that he prevailed not against him, and he touched the breadth of his thigh; and the breadth of Jacob’s thigh grew stiff while he was wrestling with him. And he said to him, Let me go, for the day breaks. And he said, I will not let you go, unless you bless me. And he said unto him, What is your name? And he said, Jacob. And he said to him, Your name shall be called no more Jacob, but Israel shall be your name: for you have prevailed with God, and art powerful with men. And Jacob asked him, and said, Tell me your name. And he said, Why is it that you ask after my name? And he blessed him there. And Jacob called the name of the place Vision of God: for I have seen God face to face, and my life is preserved. And the sun rose, when the vision of God passed by. And that he also prophesied by inspiration, is evident from this passage: And Jacob called unto his sons, and said, Gather yourselves together, that I may tell you what shall befall you in the last days. Gather yourselves together, and hear, you sons of Jacob; and hearken unto Israel your father. Reuben, my first-born, my might, and the beginning of my children, hard to be born, hard and stubborn. You were wanton, boil not over like water; because you went up to your father’s bed; then defiled the couch to which you went up. And so with the rest: it was by inspiration that the prophetic blessings were pronounced. We need not wonder, then, that Daniel sometimes prophesied by inspiration, as when he rebuked the elders sometimes, as you say, by dreams and visions, and at other times by an angel appearing unto him.

  1. 11. Your other objections are stated, as it appears to me, somewhat irreverently, and without the becoming spirit of piety. I cannot do better than quote your very words: Then, after crying out in this extraordinary fashion, he detects them in a way no less incredible, which not even Philistion the play-writer would have resorted to. For, not satisfied with rebuking them through the Spirit, he placed them apart, and asked them severally where they saw her committing adultery; and when the one said, ‘Under a holm-tree’ (prinos) he answered that the angel would saw him asunder (prisein); and in a similar fashion threatened the other, who said, ‘Under a mastich-tree’ (schinos), with being rent asunder.

You might as reasonably compare to Philistion the play-writer, a story somewhat like this one, which is found in the third book of Kings, which you yourself will admit to be well written. Here is what we read in Kings:—

Then there appeared two women that were harlots before the king, and stood before him. And the one woman said, To me, my lord, I and this woman dwell in one house; and we were delivered in the house. And it came to pass, the third day after that I was delivered, that this woman was delivered also: and we were together; there is no one in our house except us two. And this woman’s child died in the night; because she overlaid it. And she arose at midnight, and took my son from my arms. And your handmaid slept. And she laid it in her bosom, and laid her dead child in my bosom. And I arose in the morning to give my child suck, and he was dead; but when I had considered it in the morning, behold, it was not my son which I did bear. And the other woman said, Nay; the dead is your son, but the living is my son. And the other said, No; the living is my son, but the dead is your son. Thus they spoke before the king. Then said the king, You say, This is my son that lives, and your son is the dead: and you say Nay; but your son is the dead, and my son is the living. And the king said, Bring me a sword. And they brought a sword before the king. And the king said, Divide the living child in two, and give half to the one, and half to the other. Then spoke the woman whose the living child was unto the king (for her bowels yearned after her son), and she said, To me, my lord, give her the living child, and in no wise slay it. But the other said, Let it be neither mine nor yours, but divide it. Then the king answered and said, Give the child to her which said, Give her the living child, and in no wise slay it: for she is the mother of it. And all Israel heard of the judgment which the king had judged; and they feared the face of the king: for they saw that the wisdom of God was in him to do judgment.

For if we were at liberty to speak in this scoffing way of the Scriptures in use in the Churches, we should rather compare this story of the two harlots to the play of Philistion than that of the chaste Susanna. And just as the people would not have been persuaded if Solomon had merely said, Give this one the living child, for she is the mother of it; so Daniel’s attack on the elders would not have been sufficient had there not been added the condemnation from their own mouth, when both said that they had seen her lying with the young man under a tree, but did not agree as to what kind of tree it was. And since you have asserted, as if you knew for certain, that Daniel in this matter judged by inspiration (which may or may not have been the case), I would have you notice that there seem to me to be some analogies in the story of Daniel to the judgment of Solomon, concerning whom the Scripture testifies that the people saw that the wisdom of God was in him to do judgment. This might be said also of Daniel, for it was because wisdom was in him to do judgment that the elders were judged in the manner described.

  1. 12. I had nearly forgotten an additional remark I have to make about the prino-prisein and schino-schisein difficulty; that is, that in our Scriptures there are many etymological fancies, so to call them, which in the Hebrew are perfectly suitable, but not in the Greek. It need not surprise us, then, if the translators of the History of Susanna contrived it so that they found out some Greek words, derived from the same root, which either corresponded exactly to the Hebrew form (though this I hardly think possible), or presented some analogy to it. Here is an instance of this in our Scripture. When the woman was made by God from the rib of the man, Adam says, She shall be called woman, because she was taken out of her husband. Now the Jews say that the woman was called Essa, and that taken is a translation of this word as is evident from chos isouoth essa, which means, I have taken the cup of salvation; and that is means man, as we see from Hesre aïs, which is, Blessed is the man. According to the Jews, then, is is man, and essa, woman, because she was taken out of her husband (is). It need not then surprise us if some interpreters of the Hebrew Susanna, which had been concealed among them at a very remote date, and had been preserved only by the more learned and honest, should have either given the Hebrew word for word, or hit upon some analogy to the Hebrew forms, that the Greeks might be able to follow them. For in many other passages we can find traces of this kind of contrivance on the part of the translators, which I noticed when I was collating the various editions.

  2. 13. You raise another objection, which I give in your own words: Moreover, how is it that they, who were captives among the Chaldeans, lost and won at play, thrown out unburied on the streets, as was prophesied of the former captivity, their sons torn from them to be eunuchs, and their daughters to be concubines, as had been prophesied; how is it that such could pass sentence of death, and that on the wife of their king Joakim, whom the king of the Babylonians had made partner of his throne? Then, if it was not this Joakim, but some other from the common people, whence had a captive such a mansion and spacious garden?

Where you get your lost and won at play, and thrown out unburied on the streets, I know not, unless it is from Tobias; and Tobias (as also Judith), we ought to notice, the Jews do not use. They are not even found in the Hebrew Apocrypha, as I learned from the Jews themselves. However, since the Churches use Tobias, you must know that even in the captivity some of the captives were rich and well to do. Tobias himself says, Because I remembered God with all my heart; and the Most High gave me grace and beauty in the eyes of Nemessarus, and I was his purveyor; and I went into Media, and left in trust with Gabael, the brother of Gabrias, at Ragi, a city of Media, ten talents of silver. And he adds, as if he were a rich man, In the days of Nemessarus I gave many alms to my brethren. I gave my bread to the hungry, and my clothes to the naked: and if I saw any of my nation dead, and cast outside the walls of Nineve, I buried him; and if king Senachereim had slain any when he came fleeing from Judea, I buried them privily (for in his wrath he killed many). Think whether this great catalogue of Tobias’s good deeds does not betoken great wealth and much property, especially when he adds, Understanding that I was sought for to be put to death, I withdrew myself for fear, and all my goods were forcibly taken away.

And another captive, Dachiacharus, the son of Ananiel, the brother of Tobias, was set over all the exchequer of the kingdom of king Acherdon; and we read, Now Achiacharus was cup-bearer and keeper of the signet, and steward and overseer of the accounts.

Mardochaios, too, frequented the court of the king, and had such boldness before him, that he was inscribed among the benefactors of Artaxerxes.

Again we read in Esdras, that Neemias, a cup-bearer and eunuch of the king, of Hebrew race, made a request about the rebuilding of the temple, and obtained it; so that it was granted to him, with many more, to return and build the temple again. Why then should we wonder that one Joakim had garden, and house, and property, whether these were very expensive or only moderate, for this is not clearly told us in the writing?

  1. 14. But you say, How could they who were in captivity pass sentence of death? asserting, I know not on what grounds, that Susanna was the wife of a king, because of the name Joakim. The answer is, that it is no uncommon thing, when great nations become subject, that the king should allow the captives to use their own laws and courts of justice. Now, for instance, that the Romans rule, and the Jews pay the half-shekel to them, how great power by the concession of Cæsar the ethnarch has; so that we, who have had experience of it, know that he differs in little from a true king! Private trials are held according to the law, and some are condemned to death. And though there is not full licence for this, still it is not done without the knowledge of the ruler, as we learned and were convinced of when we spent much time in the country of that people. And yet the Romans only take account of two tribes, while at that time besides Judah there were the ten tribes of Israel. Probably the Assyrians contented themselves with holding them in subjection, and conceded to them their own judicial processes.

  2. 15. I find in your letter yet another objection in these words: And add, that among all the many prophets who had been before, there is no one who has quoted from another word for word. For they had no need to go a-begging for words, since their own were true. But this one, in rebuking one of these men, quotes the words of the Lord, ‘The innocent and righteous shall you not slay.’ I cannot understand how, with all your exercise in investigating and meditating on the Scriptures, you have not noticed that the prophets continually quote each other almost word for word. For who of all believers does not know the words in Esaias? And in the last days the mountain of the Lord shall be manifest, and the house of the Lord on the top of the mountains, and it shall be exalted above the hills; and all nations shall come unto it. And many people shall go and say, Come, and let us go up to the mountain of the Lord, unto the house of the God of Jacob; and He will teach us His way, and we will walk in it: for out of Zion shall go forth a law, and a word of the Lord from Jerusalem. And He shall judge among the nations, and shall rebuke many people; and they shall beat their swords into ploughshares, and their spears into pruning-hooks: nation shall not lift up sword against nation; neither shall they learn war any more.

But in Micah we find a parallel passage, which is almost word for word: And in the last days the mountain of the Lord shall be manifest, established on the top of the mountains, and it shall be exalted above the hills; and people shall hasten unto it. And many nations shall come, and say, Come, let us go up to the mountain of the Lord, to the house of the God of Jacob; and they will teach us His way, and we will walk in His paths: for a law shall go forth from Zion, and a word of the Lord from Jerusalem. And He shall judge among many people, and rebuke strong nations; and they shall beat their swords into ploughshares, and their spears into pruning-hooks: nation shall not lift up a sword against nation, neither shall they learn war any more.

Again, in First Chronicles, the psalm which is put in the hands of Asaph and his brethren to praise the Lord, beginning, Give thanks unto the Lord, call upon His name, is in the beginning almost identical with Psalm cv., down to and do my prophets no harm; and after that it is the same as Psalm xcvi., from the beginning of that psalm, which is something like this, Praise the Lord all the earth, down to For He comes to judge the earth. (It would have taken up too much time to quote more fully; so I have given these short references, which are sufficient for the matter before us.) And you will find the law about not bearing a burden on the Sabbath day in Jeremias, as well as in Moses. And the rules about the passover, and the rules for the priests, are not only in Moses, but also at the end of Ezekiel. I would have quoted these, and many more, had I not found that from the shortness of my stay in Nicomedia my time for writing you was already too much restricted.

Your last objection is, that the style is different. This I cannot see.

This, then, is my defence. I might, especially after all these accusations, speak in praise of this history of Susanna, dwelling on it word by word, and expounding the exquisite nature of the thoughts. Such an encomium, perhaps, some of the learned and able students of divine things may at some other time compose. This, however, is my answer to your strokes, as you call them. Would that I could instruct you! But I do not now arrogate that to myself. My lord and dear brother Ambrosius, who has written this at my dictation, and has, in looking over it, corrected as he pleased, salutes you. His faithful spouse, Marcella, and her children, also salute you. Also Anicetus. Do you salute our dear father Apollinarius, and all our friends.

 

يعترف أوريجانوس بوجود تلاعب فى النسخة السبعينية و إضافات لها لا توجد فى النسخة العبرية و نصوص ناقصة بها عن النسخة العبرية.

كتب لاهوتية تؤكد ما قاله أوريجانوس

كتاب العهد القديم كما عرفته الكنيسة يؤكد على أن أوريجانوس يؤكد على تلاعب اليهود بالكتاب المقدس و حرصهم على إخفاء فضائح شيوخهم

 

كتاب العهد القديم كما عرفته كنيسة الأسكندرية صفحة 57

 

كنيسة الأسمندرية صفحة 57

و يؤكد كتاب ( فكرة عن الكتاب المقدس ) ما يقوله أوريجانوس

فكرة عامة عن الكتاب المقدس – صفحة 23

ضافات37-08 AM

و تؤكد المراجع المسيحية التلاعب بسن الآباء الأوائل فى الترجمة السبعينية عن عمد 

مرشد االطالبين الى الكتاب المقدس

01-bible-falcification-تحريف-الإنجيل 02-bible-falcification-تحريف-الإنجيل 03-bible-falcification-تحريف-الإنجيل

 
بنقدور نبيل . 11:16:52 . 2016-01-10

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